Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, 7th Edition

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Firm Sale. Internationally Sourced. In your basket. Large Print. Title Author Advanced Search. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Microbiology principles and explorations 9th edition black solutions manual 1. It is often initially difficult for students to understand that knowledge of basic, organic and biological chemistry is fundamental to a functional understanding of the many structures that bacteria possess.

It is important for students to understand that that everything is made up of chemicals and that life relies on chemical reactions. After all, cells are really just big bags of chemicals and the processes that occur in cells involve chemical reactions. Without knowledge of chemistry, the basis for the Gram stain, the role of the bacterial cell membrane, the action of antibiotics, the mechanisms of fermentation, and countless other processes could not be understood. This chapter begins with an attempt to instill in the student a need and desire to seek out this basic chemical knowledge.

A foundation is provided by presenting the structure of the atom and discussing the important features of chemical bonding and reactions. Because water is one of the fundamental molecules in living systems, a thorough analysis of this marvelous substance is provided along with important terms and concepts that will help the student relate to mechanisms such as active transport and osmosis that will be covered later in the textbook.

The last part of the chapter is devoted to a presentation of the complex molecules of organisms: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Numerous examples are provided to help the student see how these molecules relate to living systems, especially to bacteria. Considering that some students may have had prior experience with the concepts of chemistry, this chapter may be omitted. However, it can be used as an excellent reference chapter for students with previous preparation. Chapter Objectives Explain why knowledge of basic chemistry is necessary to understand microbiology.

Define the terms atom, element, molecule, and compound; list the most common elements and their symbols found in living organisms. Describe the structure of an atom, noting especially the characteristics of protons, neutrons, and electrons; explain the formation and structure of ions and isotopes. List and describe the characteristics of chemical reactions. List and describe at least four properties of water that are important to its function in living systems. Describe the properties of solutions and colloidal dispersions that are important to their function in living systems.

Define the terms acid, base, and pH; explain how these terms are used in relationship to living systems. Define organic chemistry and identify the four major functional groups of organic molecules. List and describe the characteristics of the three main types of carbohydrates, and provide two examples of each.

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Microbiology principles and explorations 9th edition black solutions …

Describe the general structure and chemical properties of simple lipids, compound lipids, and steroids, and explain the role of each in living systems. Describe the general structure and chemical properties of amino acids, and note how amino acids form into proteins. Describe the four levels of structure found in proteins; contrast structural proteins and enzymes. Describe the general structure and chemical properties of nucleotides, and explain the role of nucleotides in living systems.

Teaching Tips Ball-and-stick models of various molecules such as carbon dioxide and water can be used to illustrate spatial relationships. Obtain a conductivity-of-solutions apparatus to test the electrical properties of liquids. Immerse the electrodes in various solutions to illustrate electrolytes and current flow. To illustrate the various organic molecules and their properties, bring examples of food that consist primarily of specific sugars, proteins, lipids, and so forth.

Overall review of fundamental concepts of cell biochemistry.

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By twisting and coiling the rope, all three levels of protein structure can be demonstrated In-Class Activity Activity — Protein structure Time: Approximately minutes Materials: Bring in various lengths of a heavy piece of rope. Procedures: Have the students twist and coil the rope, using it to demonstrate the different levels of protein structure.

Alternatively, have students link paper clips together simulating the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids. Then have the students twist and coil the chain so that it takes on different forms in secondary and tertiary structure. Make sure that the students understand what types of bonds are being used to hold together the different structures. Student instructions: Using the materials provided either rope or paper clips , manipulate the materials in such a way as to demonstrate the different protein structures.

Explain what kinds of bonds are important in the different levels of protein structure as you form them. After the structures have been formed, you can then emphasize that temperature is really a measure of the movement of molecules, and that when you increase temperature you increase movement, which can disrupt the weaker bonding hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions thus causing denaturation.

It would also be important to emphasize that shape defines function in proteins which will be examined later with examples of enzymes and substrates, virus proteins and receptors, and even antibodies and antigens. Objectives: Giving the students a clear understanding of how important chemicals are to life and how shapes of molecules can define their function.


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Using Technology in Your Microbiology Classroom 1. Animations — textbook website A. The formation of ions. This textbook animation is used to enhance Figure 2. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. Polar compounds and hydrogen bonding. Polarity and water molecules. The pH values of some common substances. Animations — online A. Hydrogen bonds and water from Northland College website. Chemical bond animations covering ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds. Amino acid and peptide bond animation by John Kryk. Carbohydrates by Barbara Liang at the wisc-online site.

Lipids by Barbara Liang at the wisc-online site. If both starch and cellulose contain the monosaccharide glucose, why can't most animals, including humans, digest cellulose? What vitamins are they? Are there any other vitamins that play a similar role, and how do they chemically form these dinucleotide molecules? How can DNA be used in fingerprinting criminals? Chapter Outline I. Why Study Chemistry?

ISBN 13: 9781118105481

Chemical building blocks 1. Atoms and elements 2. Atomic formulas 3. Molecules 4. Compounds B. Structure of atoms 1. Atomic particles a.

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Protons b. Neutrons 6. Electrons 2.

Properties of atomic particles 3. Atomic number 4. Electron shells 5. Ions a.

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Cation b. Anion 6. Atomic weight 7. Isotopes 8. Gram molecular weight mole 9. Radioisotopes C. Chemical bonds 1. Ionic bonds 2. Covalent bonds 3. Hydrogen bonds a.

by Jacquelyn G Black Microbiology Principles and Explorations text only7th Seventh editionHardcover

Polar compounds b. Molecular structure D. Chemical reactions 1. Catabolism 2. Anabolism 3. Exergonic and endergonic reactions III. Water and Solutions A. Water 1. Importance to living systems 2. Properties a.

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