The Scientific Basis of Flotation

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Engineering aggregates to be fit for purpose by tailoring the chemical and mechanical inputs based on a sound understanding on the underlying water characteristics concentrations, hydrophobicity, molecular weight, charge etc. This work focusses on water sources containing high levels of coloured organic compounds but also those sources laden with inorganic particles, nanoparticle catalysts and wastewater.

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Effective point of use POU water treatment for decentralised water supply by harnessing emerging technology to deliver small scale water treatment solutions that can produce high quality drinking water. This research aims to determine the operational features needed for effective POU water treatment and understand the important environmental and socio-economic factors that need to be incorporated in a successful POU system for application in high and low income countries. Recent relevant publications Hanumanth Rao, N.

Turbidity composition and the relationship with microbial attachment and UV inactivation efficacy. Separation and Purification Technology, , Emenike, C. Water Research, , Goslan, E. A step towards interpreting flow cytometry profiles after chlorine disinfection and membrane integrity staining. Environmental Technology, 37 7 , Pivokonsky, M. Water Environment Journal, 31 3 , Metcalfe, D.

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Separation and Purification Technology. Separation and Purification Technology, , — Golea, D. Separation Science and Technology, 51 8 , Jefferson, B.

The scientific basis of flotation. - Semantic Scholar

Carra, I. Chemical Engineering Journal, , Keeley, J.

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Acidified and ultrafiltered water treatment works recovered coagulants for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. Water Research, 88, Keeley, J. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment. Although boosts to creativity are a prime selling point for float houses, evidence supporting them is sparse.

A far better researched effect of flotation is that it enhances performance in a variety of athletic and musical tasks that require high levels of concentration and visual-motor coordination, including basketball , tennis , archery and jazz improvisation. In a sample of 13 jazz students, four sessions enhanced their technical performance one week after the last flotation experience, suggesting the possibility of lasting benefits. Suedfeld speculates that flotation may enhance creativity and performance in a manner similar to that of sleep or meditation.

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Research has shown that during resting states the brain repeatedly rehearses newly learned skills and consolidates recently acquired knowledge for long-term storage. Some studies have also shown that the resting brain is particularly adept at synthesizing information from a wide range of brain areas to solve tough problems — something you may have experienced daydreaming in the shower.

How Do Ships Float?

Advancements in brain imaging techniques may someday help us understand how these twilight states compare at a neurological level. Cognitive perturbations only make up half of the flotation experience; far more noticeable are the physical effects. Within minutes of entering the tank, I coaxed my muscles to relax and allowed myself to sink into the warm cocoon of water that supported every inch of my body.

Moving around required a surprising amount of effort; submerging my head under water was plainly impossible. I was content to lay still. In the early s, a group of psychologists at the Medical College of Ohio initiated a series of experiments that looked at the physiological responses to REST. Both within and across flotation sessions, blood pressure and levels of stress-related hormones dropped — effects that persisted long after the cessation of the last flotation experience.

In , a meta-analysis further confirmed that flotation was more effective at reducing stress than other popular methods such as relaxation exercises, biofeedback or relaxing on the couch. These results prompted researchers to investigate whether flotation could help patients with stress-related disorders. The treatment was used as a primary intervention for disorders as diverse as hypertension , headaches , insomnia and rheumatoid arthritis ; all of these studies showed positive effects in small sample sizes.

Those suffering from intractable chronic pain particularly benefited from weekly REST sessions: their level of perceived pain dropped, their sleep improved and they reported feeling happier and less anxious.

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An ongoing project is investigating the use of flotation for fibromyalgia pain management with positive preliminary results. Still, the research has been imperfect.

Flotation Separation of High Sulfur Lead-Zinc Ore

For one, studies are generally small. Going about daily activities? The mysticism and recreational drug use that surround flotation have also slowed research on the technique by the broader scientific community. But the key to wider scientific acceptance might be for scientists to rein in theirs, Suedfeld says. As for me, when I left the float house reflecting on my session, I was suddenly painfully aware of the incessant car honks and busy footsteps from the bustling streets — noises I had almost forgotten about in my hour of disconnection.

Was the experience transformative? But I felt calm and relaxed for the first time in weeks.